Glaucoma is the collective name for eye disorders that affect the optic nerve. The result is a steady and progressive loss of vision. Left untreated, the issue results in irreversible loss of vision.
Optic nerve is central to the process in which the brain receives information from the eye. In fact, it is the only channel available to the eyes to transmit information to the parts of the brain that interpret information collected by the retina of the eye.
The Optic nerve actually consists of almost a million fibers. Composed of nerve cells, these fibers bound together in the form of optic nerve and convey information to the brain.
In Glaucoma, optic nerve gets damaged and is no longer able to convey information to the brain. Since the damage is gradual, it is often easy to miss the signs of the ailment. Only, when the patient starts to experience vision loss that hinders daily activities do they visit an eye doctor. By this time, the damage has progressed to the extent where full recovery is not possible in many cases.
One of the main causes of Glaucoma is the internal pressure of the eye. Any increase in this pressure causes damage to the optic nerve. Over years, the continued presence of high pressure within the eye could cause severe damage to the optic nerve and result in Glaucoma.
People above the age of forty are most susceptible to Glaucoma. The probability could increase sharply of the patient has family history of the issue. In many cases, the problem is hereditary and could show up later in life.